Asynchronous Learning Learning where interaction is delayed for a separate time via emails, voicemails, audio / video recordings, discussion / chat forums. Suitable for self-paced learners, geographically distant learners and so forth. In DE, learners can access to such learning for learning the content, practicing it and for assessment purposes.
Blended Learning A form of instruction that is conducted both online and in brick-and-mortar environments in that learners can engage in learning experience with online and digital components to enhance learning in physical spaces. Learners can do web-search activities, construct materials and learning content and share with peers and instructors. Online or F2F parts are added to a blended course. Suitable for beginners of ed-tech integration.
Blogs: An online journal where information is exhibited in reverse chronology with the latest post listed first. Also known as weblogs, these can be used in distance education for practice and exhibition of what has been learned, open to multi-user creation and interactive for learners’ posts and comments.
Brick and Mortar Existing in the form of a physical, tangible building or construction. In fully online distance education, there is no need for bric-and-mortar except for system running.
Bulletins A brief piece of information that is aimed at being publicised or broadcast to followers such as learners and news readers. In DE, bulletins can be used to notify/inform the learners via web regarding the course content, tests, reports and announcements.
CBL (computer-based learning) CBL is a term used for any type of learning that occurs with the help of computers that pave the way for interactive software and tools to convey information or create interaction in a S-S, T-S and S-T way in DE.
Correspondence Learning CL is said to be the origin of DE. Need for transmission of information to students in positive sciences and religious studies in distant locations generated CL. It worked via mail, homework assignment and analysis and critique of the works prepared by disciples in the field.
Delivery The way instructors convey/transmit course content to the learners to support learning process. Online, mobile and computer delivery modes are frequently used in DE.
Discussion Board (Threaded) Aka message board, online forum and so on, it is an online bulletin board where learners can leave, respond to, analyse, interpret messages and get feedback from instructors on any type of learning involved in that specific forum. In DE, the use of discussion boards are commonly resorted to activate students, to help them to interact, and to exercise and practise on student learning.
Distance Education DE is a way of instruction for students in remote locations that transmits the learning content in virtual spaces rather than face-to-face in brick-and-mortar buildings with a teacher in a physical classroom.
Distance Learning DL is a way of learning of students in remote locations that reaches the learning content in virtual spaces rather than face-to-face in brick-and-mortar buildings with a teacher in a physical classroom.
E-book A digital version of a book publication that is readable on electronic devices, being formed of text and/or images.
E-instructional Design The practice of designing online courses for the enhancement of student learning and instructor efficiency in teaching throughout the ideal pedagogies. In DE, quality design is equal to success in achieving the learning goals of the distance education.
E-learning Learning that is achieved exerting educational technologies. DE involves e-learning in its nature.
E-learning Pedagogies Instructional strategies that aim to maximize the quality and the extent of learning goals planned for students. The success of DE is entirely dependent on e-learning pedagogies that will make it effective for the instructor to deliver the content to the learners and that will enable the students to interact/construct with each other during the learning journey.
E-module Brief pieces of virtual instruction that aims to reach one or two learning goals in relatively short learning spans such as 10-15 mins.
Educational Technologies Ed-tech is the utilization of physical hardware and software within the framework of educational theories in order to facilitate learning and enhance performance by creating, developing, using, managing and evaluating appropriate technological processes and resources. DE has been enabled by the developments in educational technologies.
Flexible Learning FL is the practice of diverse choices by students and instructors in terms of learning activities, time, location, teaching and assessment. DE is a flexible learning environment. What’s more, any environment whether it be physical or virtual, can be supported with flexibility in time, activity, practice, design and so on.
Flipped Learning Delivery of the course content online, out of school while enhancing discussion, critical thinking and evaluation in the physical classtoo environment. Also doable in DE with content delivered befrehand and discussion to be done on the virtual class.
F2F F2F learning is an instructional method where course content and materials are transmitted live, straightforward to students in physical interaction between the learners and the instructor. DE is an alternative to F2F.
Fully Online Learning Fully online learning is the activity in which course content is delivered completely online, with no physical boundaries nor on-campus classrooms.
Hybrid Learning HL is the practice of conducting courses online, yet, designing some proportion of the course to be performed in brick-and-mortar spaces. The difference between Blended and Hybrid Learning is that Hybrid has a decreased proportion of online side and added F2F time.
Hyper Media Interconnected graphics, audio, video, text and hyperlinks. Technology in media. DE can be said to be a compound product of all these hypermedia means.
ICT Integration of telecommunications and computers as well as software to enable users to access, store, transfer and manipulate information. DE benefits a lot from the means of ICT.
Immersive Technologies Technologies that emulate a physical world through the digital tools available by creating an environment with sensory feelings such VR and AR technologies. DE can be strenghtened with the use of immersive technologies available today and possible in the future.
Interactive Online Learning Online learning which is reinforced with the use of proper pedagogies and Web 2.0 tools with the goal of achieving enhanced interaction for learners and the instructor.
Informal Learning Learning that occurs in an unstructered and formalized way. Viewing videos, readng articles, searching for resources, wandering libraries, doing self-study, involving in chat rooms and forums are considered to be informal learning where learners set their own plans and goals.
Learning Objects A collection of content items, practice items, activity items and assessment items that funnel into a specific learning goal/objective.
Learning Platforms An integrated means of interactive online services that enables instructors, learners, parents and others involved with information, tools, resources to support and enhance educational delivery and management. These include learning management systems, student management systems, content management systems, school management systems, only learning platforms as well.
Life-long Learning Attainment of knowledge and information in a continuous and self-motivated way for personal or professional reasons.
Mayer R. The father of Multimedia Design Principles. Any DE design will need to resort to these principles for better quality.
Multimedia Content that utilizes a mix of forms such as images, video, audio, text, animations and includes hypermedia as well. Interactive and educational technology-appropriate.
Multimedia Design Principles Principles that will enhance the quality of instruction and are helpful in  designing video, animation, textbooks, ebooks, slides or online courses.
Mobile Learning ML, aka m-learning, is a novel way of accessing information via mobile devices such as phones, laptops, tablets and computers.
MOOCs Online courses that aim at serving an unlimited number of learner participants and are open access via the web. DE contians MOOCs as subpcategory of itself. MOOCs are powered with the use of filmed lectures, machine learning, dicussion forums, automated quizzes and so on.
Netiquette It is a code of polite and desirable behaviors in digital world. As everywhere, netiquette is critical in DE environments.
Open Learning Learning and instructional activities that enhance learning facilities in formal and informal settings. In the delivery of DE and for learner preaparation for DE courses, open learning is a viable way of obtaining course-related information.
Optimised Learning Learning design where learners are enabled to acquire learning components in accordance with the best possible way they learn.
Self-paced Learning Learning construction in which learners progress from one component to the next at their own speed. Becoming more popular with the spread of Internet.
Self-regulation Taking control of one’s own learning, self-motivation and self-evaluation of the whole process. In DE and flipped learning, it is a core component for the system to be successful.
Synchoronus Learning Aka real-time learning, in synchronous learning occurs in a setting where students and instructor are engaged in the process at the same time.
Universal e-learning standards Technical and pedagogical standards to make e-learning accessible to all learners in a standardized way including methods, tools, practices, techniques, pedagogies and so on. Every DE needs to follow a rhetorical framework of such design to be successfully accessible.
Video/Tele Conferencing Connection between the learner and the instructor in remote locations via video / tele conferencing that brings different worlds and experts to the reach of the learners. In DE, video/tele conferencing is an effective tool to be used.
Virtual Exchange An educational exchange program that allows geographically-separated people to interact and exchange information with one another. User interaction can be learner to learner and/or learner to instructor.
Virtual Reality VR is an immersive sensory experience that could be used in F2F and DE environments effectively to make the learners interact with and engage in diverse learning experiences.
Web 1.0 tools Web content tools that are mostly created by a few and consumed by the majority.
Web 2.0 tools Web content tools that invite the users to conribute to the site by commenting, publishing, creating a user account which lead to increased participation of information production.
Web 3.0 tools Decentralisation of web content such as search, social media and chat applications and so on and production of all content by individuals rather than solid companies who hold all the rights in the system.
Rhizomatic Learning A variety of pedagogical practices informed by the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. It has more recently been identified as methodology for net-enabled education. In contrast to goal-directed and hierarchical theories of learning, it posits that learning is most effective when it allows participants to react to evolving circumstances. In such a structure, “the community is the curriculum”.
Cognitive Presence Construction of meaning in a learning setting whether it be learning or e-learning.
Distributed Learning Open Learning Systems that are accessible by unlimited number of learners
Emergency Online/Remote Teaching A transfer or alternate way of carrying courses online with lack of planning due a sudden phenomena out of human control. Not exactly e-learning or DE.
E-research Research that uses the information technology facilities
Intelligent Tutoring Systems Smart software that delivers, guides, partners, feedbacks, supports learners in e-learning environments
HyFlex Learning HyFlex combines the terms “hybrid” and “flexible.” Hybrid learning refers to learning that integrates complementary face-to-face (synchronous) and online learning (asynchronous) experiences in service of intended learning objectives
LMS Standards & Specifications A set of standards that are expected to be possessed by the available LMS platforms in use
LTI Learning Tools Interoperability: provides the co-functionality of learning objects in online settings.
LxD Learning Experience Design (a novel name for Instructional Design)
MIS Global A global consortium that sets the pedagogical and technical standards and specificaitons for LMS platforms.
Ontology Representation, relation and definition of categories, concepts and entities, a subject matter in computer and information science
Pedagogically Standalone Objects Usable stand-alone learning objects that can be intelligently brought back to any setting or could be searched and accessed based on the learner or instructor needs.
SCORM Sharable Content Object Reference Model: A system that produces skeletons and user data to work on various platforms in e-learning
Social Presence Construction of being ‘real & present’ in a learning setting whether it be learning or e-learning.
TEAL Technology-Enriched/Enabled Active Learning (will be my dissertation subject, hopefully)
Teaching Presence Construction of design, facilitation, scaffolding the social and cognitive meaning-making in a learning setting whether it be learning or e-learning.
Transactional Distance With the increasing level between the instructor and the learner, the autonomy (self-regulation) of the learner must increase as well (Moore, 1980). It is not the physical distance only, but the instructional distance, availablity of interactivity and collaboration in the learning setting.
Quality Matters The process of certifying the quality of online courses and e-learning delivery systems.
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